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Modulation of Cell-signaling Pathways of Indole 3 Carbinol Powder-Ⅱ
- Sep 16, 2019 -

Modulation of cell-signaling pathways

I3C and condensation derivatives have been found to affect multiple signaling pathways that are often deregulated in cancer cells. Below are some examples illustrating how I3C, DIM, or ICZ may influence cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and immunity by targeting specific signaling pathways.

Regulation of inflammation and cell-mediated immunity

Uncontrolled inflammation has been associated with several chronic diseases, including cancer. In the mouse ear edema model, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), has been found to be mitigated by DIM treatment. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a major transcription factor regulating the expression of many pro-inflammatory genes like those coding for COX-2 and iNOS. Specifically, DIM inhibited TPA-induced activation of kinases (inhibitor of kappa B kinase [IκK] and extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]) that control the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. In addition, recent animal studies showed that I3C and/or DIM could modulate cell-mediated immune response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, staphylococcal enterotoxin-induced lung inflammation, and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Specifically, I3C and/or DIM differentially regulated T-cell subpopulations via the activation or suppression of microRNA-dependent pathways controlling cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

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Transplacental cancer prevention

The inclusion of I3C in the maternal diet was found to protect the offspring from lymphoma and lung tumors induced by dibenzo[a]pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are chemical pollutants formed during incomplete combustion of organic substances, such as coal, oil, wood, and tobacco.

However, the physiological relevance of cell culture and animal studies to human health is unclear since little or no I3C is available to tissues after oral administration.

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