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Modulation of Cell-signaling Pathways of Indole 3 Carbinol Powder-Ⅰ
- Sep 11, 2019 -

Modulation of cell-signaling pathways

I3C and condensation derivatives have been found to affect multiple signaling pathways that are often deregulated in cancer cells. Below are some examples illustrating how I3C, DIM, or ICZ may influence cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and immunity by targeting specific signaling pathways.

Induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

Once a cell divides, it passes through a sequence of stages — collectively known as the cell cycle — before it divides again. Following DNA damage, the cell cycle can be transiently arrested at damage checkpoints, which allows for DNA repair or activation of pathways leading to cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is irreparable. Defective cell cycle regulation may result in the propagation of mutations that contribute to the development of cancer. In addition, unlike normal cells, cancerous cells lose their ability to respond to death signals that initiate apoptosis.

I3C-induced downregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/serine-threonine kinase (Akt) cell survival signaling pathway in mice with nasopharyngeal carcinoma resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in DIM-treated colon cancer cells decreased the expression of downstream targets, c-myc and cyclin D1, that promote cell proliferation and survival. In prostate cancer cells, I3C opposed the anti-apoptotic effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) by limiting EGF receptor autophosphorylation (activation) and reducing EGF-induced activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and expression of the pro-survival target molecules, Bcl-x(L) and BAD. In another study, DIM caused apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by stimulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)-induced upregulation of tumor suppressor p75NTR. The anti-proliferative effect of DIM in cancer cells has also been linked to the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Specifically, DIM was found to reverse HDAC-mediated epigenetic silencing of genes coding for key regulators of the cell cycle. A recent genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation also showed that DIM could reverse aberrant promoter methylation in prostate cancer cells, at least partly through downregulating the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs).

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Inhibition of cell migration and invasion

The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes a process of epithelial cell transformation whereby cells lose their polarity and adhesion properties while gaining migratory and invasive properties through the expression of mesenchymal genes. Inhibition of EMT by I3C and ICZ in breast cancer cells has been associated with upregulation of an epithelial marker, E-cadherin, and downregulation of vimentin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and matrix metalloproteins (MMPs) — proteins and enzymes known to promote migration. DIM also inhibited migration and invasion of liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo through inactivating the FAK signaling pathway. Moreover, DIM has been shown to reverse methylation-associated dysregulation of genes involved in cell adhesion, chemotaxis, and inflammation that contributes to cancer progression. DIM was able to inhibit lung metastasis in mice with liver or mammary tumors.

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