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Biological Activities of Indole 3 Carbinol Powder-Ⅱ
- Sep 06, 2019 -

Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-dependent pathway

I3C and DIM have been shown to induce the expression of phase II detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes via the activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent pathway.

Briefly, Nrf2 is a transcription factor that is bound to the protein Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in the cytosol(Figure 4). Keap1 responds to oxidative stress signals or chemical inducers by freeing Nrf2. Upon release, Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus and binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) located in the promoters of genes coding for antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes and scavengers. Nrf2/ARE-dependent genes code for numerous mediators of the antioxidant response, including glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), thioredoxin, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). DIM induced Nrf2/ARE-dependent upregulation of HO-1, and I3C stimulated NQO-1 and GST (µ2 isoform) expression in liver cancer cells. In addition, the transcription of Nrf2 coding gene, which was abnormally repressed through promoter DNA hypermethylation, was enhanced in mouse prostate cancer cells treated with DIM. DIM subsequently restored the expression of the Nrf2-target genes, NQO1 and GSTµ1. DIM also reversed Nrf2gene silencing in transgenic mouse prostate cancer tissues, inducing Nrf2 expression, and subsequently, NQO1 expression (Figure 4). This was accompanied by the suppression of proliferation and the induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer tissues. Similar observations have been reported with I3C.

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