In this third article of BHB salts powder and PKD we will continue the same subject of previous article, what PKD is.
Abnormal proliferation of intracapsular epithelial cells is one of the significant features of PKD. It is in an incomplete or re-developed state, highly suggesting that the developmental regulation of bacteria is impaired, and the cells are in an immature state, thus showing strong proliferative.
This cell transport abnormality is another significant feature of PKD, which is manifested by the sub-unit combination, distribution and activity expression of Na+-K+-ATPase closely related to cell transport. Abnormal cell signaling and changes in ion transport channels.
Abnormal proliferation of extracellular matrix is the third prominent feature of PKD. Many studies have now demonstrated that these abnormalities are involved in the activity of cells involved in cell growth. But the key anomalies and pathways are not yet clear. In short, abnormal cell growth and interstitial formation due to genetic defects are one of the important pathogenesis of this disease.
The cysts in the kidney can be large or small, the smaller ones are less than 0.1cm in diameter, the larger ones can be very large, and the kidneys in the cut surface are honeycomb-shaped giant pieces. The cysts can communicate with each other, but not with the renal pelvis, and the renal parenchyma of the cyst is changed by fibrosis. The fluid in the capsule is pale yellow or bloody, and the cyst wall is composed of cuboidal epithelial cells. There are many under the capsule wall. Arteries, due to increased pressure and co-infection, and even rupture and hemorrhage.
The color depends on factors such as bleeding or infection, and may be dark red, dark brown, brownish yellow, and the like.
So far, we have learn what PKD is. In the following articles we will learn what BHB is and how it act on PKD.
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